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Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Communicative Language Teaching Clt 1. This includes a discussion of the function and situation: People, roles, setting, topic and the level of formality or informality the function and situation demand. Brainstorming or discussion to establish the vocabulary and expressions to be used to accomplish the communicative intent. Includes a framework or means of structuring a conversation or exchange to achieve the purpose of the speakers. Study of the basic communicative expressions in the dialogue or one of the structures that exemplifies the function, using pictures, real objects, or dramatization to clarify the meaning.

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Learner discovery of generalizations or rules underlying the functional expression or structure, with model examples on the chalkboard, underlining the important features, using arrows or referents where feasible. Oral recognition and interpretative activities including oral production proceeding from guided to freer communication activities. To complete the lesson cycle, provide opportunities to apply the language learned the day before in novel situations for the same or a related purpose. Then they took me to my hotel in Famagusta that was very beautiful and comfortable.

He was a well-trained tourist guide with a sense of humor. He was very friendly and helped us a lot. He showed us many historical places. They were marvelous. I liked Salamis Ruins the best because I am fond of mosaics and ancient sites. The food was delicious.

I selected sheftali kebab from the menu. It is minced meat with parsley and onions rolled in a membrane and then grilled. The beach is on the Mediterranean Sea. The sea was very clean and the view was fantastic. We swam there for an hour. That was my first day in Cyprus.

Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and the Post -Method Era

I will never forget my vacation there. Other inferential or problem-solving questions will require the use of maps, brochures, etc. Generate a concept web based on this model. Teacher and students will generate vocabulary and expressions for each of the concept categories related to vacations, including who took the vacation and when, where the vacation spot was, how they traveled there, and what they enjoyed about the place. Teacher will encourage students to use past tense verbs and descriptive vocabulary.

Storytelling and communicative language teaching: communicative language teaching CLT

Put several sentences together for a short oral presentation from selected students. On the other hand, the selection, sequencing, and justification of the curriculum content are elements of syllabus design. The criteria mentioned above serve as guide for language syllabus designers particularly language teachers, for these are the things that they should evaluate before making a decision.

A language syllabus needs curricular decisions, and designing one entails a complex process. The aforementioned essentials of syllabus designing offer a great deal of excitement not only in this study but also in the field of language teaching in general. In spite of the diverse points of view the literature review has presented so far, there is a major goal that can be drawn from these diverse thoughts and that is, in whatever way a syllabus is designed and implemented, it should be learner-centered.

Grammar Teaching in a Communicative Approach. An important issue that should be considered in this study is the grammar or language form instruction. Whether grammar should be taught explicitly or implicitly is what comprises this issue. This part of the review includes discussion concerning explicit and implicit grammar teaching. In Brown , grammar is defined as a system of rules governing conventional arrangement and relationship of words in a sentence.

In addition, Brown posits that grammatical competence is necessary for communication; however, it is not sufficient.


Larsen- Freeman in Brown, points out that grammar is one of the three interconnected dimensions which is composed of forms and structures of language, but these forms would just be meaningless if they are not integrated with the other dimensions which are semantics and pragmatics. These definitions signify that grammar should not be taught in isolation. Grammar has a place in communication but it has to be enhanced with communicative activities.

Musumeci posits that grammar has a role in communicative language teaching. Since all languages are characterized by structures, forms, syntax—which are grammar concerns—then language does not exist without it. Clearly, the goal of language learning in the communicative classroom is to acquire the grammar of the second language to enable learners understand and make meaning so that they will become proficient users of the second language.

Research shows that explicit grammar teaching alone cannot enhance such competence and thus grammar should be taught in meaningful ways. Lynch in Beale points out that the study of grammar reveals how language works and it emphasizes the important aspect in both English acquisition and learning. Robin stresses that teachers must juggle three important elements in teaching explicit grammar: first is the goal and time of instruction, in which teachers consider those who take grammar for granted; second is the structure of the target language, which emphasizes that grammar should not drive the curriculum; and the third element is the style of the learner, which considers how learners can effectively learn grammar.

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Noonan states that explicit knowledge is conscious knowledge of grammar rules learned through formal classroom instruction. In contrast, implicit knowledge is unconscious, that is an internalized knowledge of a language that is available for spontaneous speech. Fotos in Celce-Murcia, terms these two general types of knowledge as declarative explicit and procedural implicit. Brown presents his idea some of which are similar to the aforementioned principles such as 1 keeping the explanation brief and simple by also allowing the use of mother tongue if the learners can hardly get the explanations; and 2 trying to consider varying cognitive styles among learners.

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No matter what issues of grammar teaching arise, grammar permeates all language skills, and the objective of teaching grammar is accuracy in the oral and written language for communicative purposes. Language Program Assessment and Evaluation. Evaluation and assessment have been distinguished in many ways. One may have the perception that it is better to use the term assessment than evaluation since the latter connotes control or regulation whereas assessment merely implies procedures and descriptive observation.

In this study, the term assessment is primarily used; however, some concepts of program evaluation are also considered. According to Brown language evaluation is the on-going process of information gathering, analysis, and synthesis. Its purpose is to improve the other elements of the curriculum framework. Gronlund in Nunan defines evaluation as a systematic process of determining the degree to which instructional objectives are achieved by the learners.